The Supernatural In The Works Of Marie De France
In Yönec and Bisclavret by Marie De France, the element of the supernatural is used to emphasize virtue. Those who embrace the supernatural are portrayed as worthy and morally upright, while those who are repulsed by the supernatural are portrayed as evil and immoral. In Bisclavret, the lord's supernatural situation draws attention to the virtues of love and loyalty. In Yönec, Muldumarec's shape-shifting abilities are used to emphasize the virtues of courtly love. Muldumarec's prophecy before his death establishes him as a character who is so virtuous that he is blessed with prescience. In both tales, those who stand between a supernatural being and their pursuit of virtue are severely punished.
In Bisclavret, the supernatural lord is, “a good knight, handsome, known to be / all that makes for nobility. / Prized, he was, much, by his liege lord; / and by his neighbors was adored.” (De France 17-20) His virtue is established before his mythical curse is revealed. His wife, “a worthy soul, / most elegant and beautiful” (21-22) is concerned that his is breaking his marriage vows and has taken a mistress. She pleads, “Tell me, dear husband; tell me, pray, / What do you do? Where do you stay? / It seems to me you've found another! / You wrong me, if you have a lover!” (48-52) In order to convince his wife that he is innocent, he tells her of his condition. Upon hearing his confession, “Terror, she felt, at this strange tale. / She thought what means she could avail / herself of how to leave this man. / She could not lie with him again.” (98-102) She is so disgusted by the concept that her loyal husband is not purely human, she agrees to be the lover of a chevalier if he will help her distance herself from the beast she imagines her husband has become.
The lord, trapped in a wolf's form, still displays his virtuous nature, even when his life is in danger. As he is about to be ripped to shreds by hunting dogs, “His eye, distinguishing, could see / the king; to beg his clemency / he seized the royal stirrup, put / a kiss upon the leg and foot.” (147-148) The lord displays his loyalty to the king, even when it could prove fatal. His loyalty to his king is handsomely rewarded. The king, accepting that this wolf has the mind of a human, is depicted as wise and virtuous for his acceptance of the bisclavret.
When the lord, still trapped in the body of a wolf, sees his wife and her new husband, the chevalier, he attacks each of them. Instead of distancing himself from the apparently vicious animal, the wise king deduces that the wolf has some legitimate grievance with the couple and has them punished. As a result of the king's astute actions, the lord is restored to his human form and his wife's descendents are branded by the curse of being born with no noses as a penalty for their mother's lack of loyalty.
The cast of characters in Yönec is introduced in such a way that it would be impossible to mistake their level of virtue. The seigneur of Carẅent...
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THE LAIS OF MARIE DE FRANCE
A VERSE TRANSLATION
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Judith P. Shoaf
We know nothing about Marie de France. For various reasons, it's thought that her twelve Lais date from around 1170, that their author was a woman named Marie who also wrote a rhymed collection of Aesop's Fables (or rather of an expanded medieval version of these fables) and one longer poem tralsted from Latin, the Purgatory of St. Patrick. She may have been an aristocratic woman, perhaps a nun, living in England.
Marie de France's Lais were read in her own time; her French is "easy" (a widely-read Anglo-Norman literary language) and the poems are relatively short (the longest is only about a sixth as long as the verse romances being written at the same time by Chrétien de Troyes); readers usually seem to have read them in French, though they were translated, for example, into Old Norse and read in Iceland.
Marie's language is Anglo-Norman, the dialect spoken among the aristocracy of England and large parts of Northern France; she was part of a generation of writers (notable among them Chretien de Troyes) who were in the process of inventing the French verse romance. Her verse form is the octosyllabic couplet: eight-syllable lines in rhyming pairs:
Ki Deus ad doné escïence
E de parler bon' eloquence
Ne s'en deit taisir ne celer,
Ainz se deit volunters mustrer.
Quant uns granz biens est mult oïz,
Dunc a primes est il fluriz,
E quant loëz est de plusurs,
Dunc ad espandues ses flurs.
Her rhyme-words are not technically surprising or showy; abstract nouns (escience, eloquence), infinitives (celer, mustrer), past participles (oïz, fluriz) rhyme easily in a language whose accents all fall on the last syllable. At the same time, she is obviously making a point by demonstrating that "science" and "eloquence" rhyme, or "hide" and "show" (celer, mustrer). Her wit is in her teasing rationality, rather than in clever verbal pyrotechnics.
The English verse form I've used to translate the lais might best be characterized as doggerel. I've tried to keep to rhyming octosyllables where that seemed easy, but plenty of lines are too short and many of them tend towards the more dignified pentameter; and the rhyme scheme varies sometimes, especially in Lanval, to abab or abba or even abbcca. The rhymes can't achieve the limpid effect of Marie's; often they are either aggressively clever or aggressively bad in a way hers are not. I've translated her poems line for line, though occasionally the rhyme or the rhythm has required me to fill out a line by adding some banal phrase. I've tried to leave nothing out and to introduce few new images. My verse also uses enjambement (ending a line in mid-phrase) much more than Marie's; her tendency is to make each line a grammatically complete unit.
Marie uses an "historical present" tense often, switching from past to present and back again in a way that is much commoner in French than in English. I've followed this practice in most of my translations, partly because it gave me the option of choosing, for example, between "stands" and "stood" as a rhyme- word. The shifts in tense do not always come in exactly the same place in Marie's text as in mine.
Why have I bothered? It seems to me that the pleasure of reading Old French verse romance can't be guessed at by readers of unrhymed translations; the unrhymed version seems repetitive and a little dull, where the original sparkles. I've had fun trying to catch the sparkles here. And, oddly enough, I think that a rhymed translation may end up being more faithful to the literal sense of the original; in focusing desperately on every word, looking for a way to twist the sense into an appropriate sound, one becomes intimately familiar with all the possible senses. There is no room for careless neglect of a line, a phrase, or a shade of meaning.
The twelve Lais and their prologue, along with a copy of the Fables, are preserved in a mid-13th century manuscript (BN MS Harley 978), and various lais also appear in other manuscripts. I have worked from Alfred Ewert’s edition of the Lais (Oxford: Blackwell). The definitive edition is by Jean Rychner (Paris: Champion, 1966). Among the translations of the Lais available are the vaguely free-verse one by Joan Ferrante and Robert Hanning (Durham, N. C.: Labyrinth Press, 1982), a prose translation by Glyn Burgess and Keith Busby (Newy York: Viking Penguin, 1986), and a verse translation of five of the lais and some other short romances by Patricia A. Terry, The Honeysuckle and the Hazel Tree (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). I have here only 8 of the twelve lais, so those who are interested in the other three (The Two Lovers, Milun, Guigemar, and the magnificent Eliduc) should use one of these. Eliduc was also translated in prose by John Fowles as part of his novel The Ebony Tower.
I want to thank various members of Arthurnet who have encouraged and criticized my translation and notes, especially Antonio Furtado (himself a translator of Marie's Lais into Portuguese), Peter Kardon, Ken Waldron, and Patrick Roper. I was also helped with a footnote to Laustic by a delightful discussion on Medtextl email list.
Istanpitta is a mmusical group that has produced a CD of Chevrefoil (in Old French!)
Be sure to look at the Internatiional Marie de Fance Society webpage for more information.
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