Poco Rall Music Definition Essay

music dictionary : Pj - Po 

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PJabbreviation of pièce jointe or pièces jointes (French: Enc., enc., enclosure, enclosures - in a business letter)
Pjäs(Swedish) play (for example, performed in a theatre) [entry corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Pjevanje na uho(Dalmatia) meaning 'singing by ear', an important feature of true traditional klapa, where the singers perform freely, without notation. Only the prvi tenor (first tenor, the leader of the group), leads the melody and lyrics of the song. He begins the singing, after which the second voice, sekondo (second tenor), immediately joins in at a third below. The third voice bariton, daje ulja pismi ("gives oil to the song" - [synonym for the soul]), completes the triad. The fourth voice, bas or basso profondo (bass), defines the harmonic functions of tonic, dominant and subdominant. He challenges himself with low and strong singing (profondo). The song unfolds with the harmonious ringing of chords, as if all the singers were well-acquainted with the melody and lyrics of the song
Pkabbreviation of Pauke(n) (German: timpani - timbales (French))
(German) in organ music, abbreviation of Pedalkoppel
pl(s).abbreviation of 'plate(s)', 'plural'
placabile(Italian) peaceful, calm, tranquil
placabilmente(Italian) calmly, peacefully
Placage(French m.) veneer (of wood), facing (on a wall)
placando(Italian) soothing, mitigando (Italian), besänftigend (German), en apaisant (French), calmante (Spanish)
Placard(French m.) cupboard, poster
placarder(French) to post up (a poster), to cover (a wall) with posters
Place(French f.) place, seat, room, space, fare (on a bus, train, etc.), square, position (of employment), space (for parking)
Place assise(French f.) seat, place
Place au soleil(French f.) place in the sun, opportunity of enjoying the good things of life
Placebo(Latin, 'I will please', French m.) a medical expression for a remedy whose effectiveness relies solely on a belief that it will do good, or prescribed to please rather than cure the patient
(Latin) the Vespers in the Office for the Dead
Place debout(French f.) standing-room
Placementtechnique of singing guided by sensations of vibrations in the face, behind the teeth, in the nose, etc. i.e. "forward placement"
Place non numérotée(French f.) unnumbered seat
Place of articulationthe point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound
Places contiguës(French f. pl.) adjacent seats
Placet(Latin) it pleases (me)
the formula using in giving a vote of assent in university and ecclesiastical conclaves, or, more generally, a vote or expression of assent
placidamente(Italian) peacefully, calmly, tranquilly, placidly
placide(French) placid
placidezza(Italian) placidly
Placidlycalmly, peacefully, placido (Italian), ruhig (German), tranquillement (French)
placido(Italian) placid, tranquil, quiet, calm
placito(Italian) judgement, pleasure
placito, a benesee a bene placito
Plafond(French m.) ceiling
Plagal(from Medieval Latin plagalis, ultimately from Greek plagios) oblique, sideways
plagal (m.), plagale (f.)(French) plagal
Plagal cadencea cadence in which the final chord on the tonic, which is always major, is preceded by the chord on the subdominant
Plagale Kadenz(German f.) plagal cadence (more specifically I-IV-I)
[entry clarified by Michael Zapf]
plagalisch(German) plagal
Plagal modethe notes of a plagal mode lying on either side of the final, beginning on the dominant (a fourth below the keynote of the authentic church mode) and then up to its octave
the octave is divided into two parts, one containing five notes - from the final (key-note) to the dominant above, the other containing four notes - from the dominant to the final above. When the notes of a melody extend from the final to its octave, the division will be at the dominant, and the lower part will consist of five notes and upper part of four. This constitutes the authentic mode. If the same series of notes is arranged so as to extend from the dominant to its octave, the division at the final will reverse the position of the two parts, that is the lower part to the final will be of four notes, the upper of five. This constitutes the plagal mode
Plagalschluss(German m.) plagal cadence (more specifically IV-I)
[entry clarified by Michael Zapf]
Plage(French f.) the beach, a Continental (seaside) resort, area
Plagiario(Italian) a plagarism, ideas borrowed or imitated from the works of other composers
Plagiarismaccidental or intentional passing off of another person's work (thoughts, writing, etc.) as one's own
[entry corrected by Bruce L. Bush]
Plagiaristsomeone who pass off another's work (thoughts, writing, etc.) as their own
plagiarizeto pass off another's work (thoughts, writing, etc.) as one's own
Plagiarizersomeone who pass off another's work (thoughts, writing, etc.) as their own
Plagiat(French m., German n.) plagarism, ideas borrowed or imitated from the works of other composers
Plagio(Italian m., Spanish m.) plagarism, ideas borrowed or imitated from the works of other composers
Plagisthe system of dividing the chant repertory into eight modes had its origins in the eight echoi of the Byzantine chant of the Eastern Church. Various terminologies have been used associated with this 'eight-mode system'. While the most widely used is that employed in the modern official chant books of the Catholic Church, in which the modes are simply numbered 1-8 in Roman numerals, other nomenclature, based upon different mediæval theorists, is also encountered. One of these, familiar to Hucbald (c. 840-930), to the ninth-century authors of the treatises Musica Enchiriadis and Scolica Enchiriadis, and to the author of the ninth- or tenth-century Commemoratio Brevis de Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis, is first found in a late eighth- or early ninth-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159)
the late eighth- or early ninth-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159) lists four modes: protus, deuterus, tritus and tetrardus, respectively, the Greek words for first (D is the finalis), second (E is the finalis), third (F is the finalis) and fourth (G is the finalis), and subdivides each of the four into two, the first of each pair being designated authentus (authentic) and the second plagis (plagal):
numberGreek nameBoethian nameas in Alia musicathe notes of the mode
reciting tone in red
finalis in blue
1.protus authentusphrygiandorianD E F G a b c d
2.protus plagishypodorianhypodorianA B C D E F G a
3.deuterus authentusdorianphrygianE F G a b c d e
4.deuterus plagismixolydianhypophrygianB C D E F G a b
5.tritus authentushypolydianlydianF G a b c d e f
6.tritus plagislydianhypolydianC D E F G a b c
7.tetrardus authentushypophyrigianmixolydianG a b c d e f g
8.tetrardus plagis hypomixolydianD E F G a b c d
hypermixolydianthe compass of a plagal mode is generally a fourth lower than the corresponding authentic mode. Today we identify the hypomixolydian as the eighth mode, whose finalis is D, a fourth lower than that of the mixolydian. However, originally the eighth mode was the hypermixolydian, whose pitch duplicates that of the hypodorian but in a higher octave, as specified by Ramis de Pareja (1482) and other commentators of the period
Plaid(French m.) travelling-rug
plaider(French) to plead
Plaidoirie(French f.) (defence) speech
Plaidoyer(French m.) plea
Plaie(French f.) wound, nuisance (person)
Plaignant (m.), Plaignante (f.)(French) plaintiff
Plainchant(from the Latin, cantus planus) also 'plain-chant', 'plainsong', plain-song', names given to the most ancient species of Church music in the Western (Orthodox Catholic) Church. This is the same type of Christian chant that was referred to by the early medieval Anglo-Saxon Council of Cloveshoo (A.D. 803), when it put forth an important decree: "Let simple and holy melodies, according to the custom of the Church, be scrupulously followed." It is characterised by being unaccompanied, sung in unison and in free rhythm according to the accentuation of the words
see 'Gregorian chant'
Plainchant mass(using solo chant) the earliest musical settings of the mass were plainchant (one voice part, in free rhythm) melodies. From the ninth to the sixteenth centuries, some plainchants were expanded by means of tropes; i.e., the grafting of new music and new texts onto the original chants
(using polyphony) organum, the simultaneous combination of more than one melody, was developed in about the ninth century. The Winchester Troper, an eleventh-century manuscript, contains 12 Kyries and 8 Glorias in two-part organum, but the notation cannot be deciphered. In the 12th- and 13th-centuries further developments of organum took place in the Magnum Liber Organi. In about 1300, polyphonic cycles of the Ordinary (having two or more sections musically related to one another) appeared. The French composer Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377) wrote one of the first complete Ordinary cycles, the Messe de Notre Dame. Although Machaut's mass is not the earliest surviving mass cycle (there are two which predate it), it is the earliest by a single composer and indeed the earliest to display such a high degree of unity. While the chants used as cantus firmus do vary, opening gestures and motivic figures are used to confirm the cyclical nature of the work. By the fourteenth century, secular melodies manifested itself in Ordinary settings, which by this time were rarely based on plainsong melodies
  • Mass from which this information has been taken
plaindre(French) to pity
Plaine(French f.) plain
Plain of Jarsa large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars, which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in the Lao Highlands at the northern end of the Annamese Cordillera, the principal mountain range of Indochina
Plainsong(English, German m.) see 'plainchant'
Plainsong and Medieval Music Societyfounded in 1888 the PMMS has played an invaluable part in the study and promulgation of liturgical chant and medieval polyphony. Their publications are used in many cathedrals around the world
Plainta slow song or instrumental composition of the 17th- and 18th-centuries
Plainte(French f., literally 'complaint' or 'groan') a slow song or instrumental composition of the 17th- and 18th-centuries
(French f.) an ornament also called the 'springer'
(French f.) on the viol, a vibrato produced by rocking a single finger behind a fret
plaintif (m.), plaintive (f.)(French) plaintive, doleful
Plaintivelyexpressing sorrow, mournful-sounding, piangendo (Italian), schmerzlich (German), plaintivement (French)
plaintivement(French) plaintively, in a plaintive manner
plaintivo(Italian) plaintive, doleful
plaire à(French) to please, to be pleasing to
plaisant (m.), plaisante (f.)(French) merry, pleasing, amusing, pleasant
plaisanter(French) to joke
Plaisanterie(French f., literally 'joke') from the eighteenth century, a light , often amusing, drawing-room piece, a term synonymous with amusement and divertissement
Plaisantin(French m.) joker
Plaisir(French m.) pleasure
Plan(French m.) map, plane (surface), plan
plan (m.), plane (f.)(French) flat
Planabweichung(German f.) budget variance
Plancha(Spanish f.) plate
Planche(Danish, French f.) plate (illustration), plank, board (for example, as in floor board), bed (for vegetables, etc.)
Planche à laver(French f.) washboard
Planche à repasser(French f.) ironing-board
Planche à voile(French f.) sailboard, windsurfing (sport)
Planche de friction(French f.) friction board
Planche explicative (s.), Planches explicatives (pl.)(French f.) explanatory illustration(s)
Plancher(French m.) floor
Planches(French f. pl., literally 'boards') stage
Planchette(French f., literally 'little plank') a heart-shaped board supported by two castors and a pencil-point, which traces out letters and words when one or more persons rest their fingers lightly upon it. The planchette was invented in about 1855, and has been used in the investigation of psychical phenomena
Planchette ronflante(French f.) or rhombe, thunder stick, bull roarer
Plancton(French m.) plankton
Planctus(Latin, literally 'lament', 'plaint') a popular Medieval lament, sung in Latin or in the vernacular, that used religious and secular subjects
Plan d'eau(French m.) an expanse of water
Planea tool for shaping wood. Planes are used to flatten, reduce the thickness of, and impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber. Planing is used to produce horizontal, vertical, or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces usually too large for shaping. Special types of planes are designed to cut joints or decorative mouldings.
planer(French) to glide
planer sur(French) to hang over (a person) (danger, etc.)
Planète(French f.) planet
Planeur(French m.) glider (aircraft)
Planh(Provençal) plaint
Planiersan anglicised version of the German verb planieren, here meaning to size printing paper. From the seventeenth century, German printers had commonly used unsized or lightly sized (slack-sized) papers as these were easier to moisten and therefore to print. The first operation carried out by a German bookbinder was to size the printed sheets, thus adding strength and enabling them to be annotated with ink
planifier(French) to plan
Planification(French f.) planning
also called "parallelism", is a technique in which harmonic interval relationships between notes are kept the same in relation to the melodic line. In chromatic planing the harmonic intervals are exact from one voicing to the next, while in diatonic planing, the harmonic intervals are not chromatically exact from one voicing to the next but diatonically exact. All of the notes used to harmonise the melody are diatonic to the chord
Planographica printmaking process in which the printing and non-printing surface rests on the same flat plane that is not cut or incised by any means. Lithographs fall into this category
Planque(French f.) hideout (familiar), cushy job
Plansch(blad)(Swedish) plate
Planschsida(Swedish) plate
Plansje(Norwegian) plate (illustration in a book)
Plant(French m.) seedling, bed (of vegetables)
Planta(Spanish f.) ball of the foot
Planta (s.), Plantas (pl.)(Spanish f.) plant
Plantas acuáticas(Spanish f.pl.) aquatic plants
Plantation(French f.) planting, plantation (sugar, tobacco, etc.)
Plante(French f.) plant
Plante des pieds(French f.) sole (of the foot)
planter(French) to plant, to drive in, to put up, to put
planter les premiers jalons de ...(French) to prepare the ground for ... (figurative), to pave the ground for ... (figurative)
Plantinthe Plantin Press at Antwerp was one of the focal centres of the fine printed book in the sixteenth century. Christophe Plantin (ca 1520 - 1589) of Touraine (called Christoffel Plantijn in Dutch), trained as a bookbinder, fled from Paris, where at least one printer had recently been burned at the stake for heresy, for Antwerp, where he bound books became a citizen, and by 1555 began to print books, at first for distribution by other publishers. The city was already an established center of printing woodcuts, engravings and books. Plantin took on an assistant, Jan Moretus (Moerentorf), who read Latin and Greek, could write correspondence in several modern languages, became Plantin's business manager, son-in-law and eventually his successor in the Plantin printing press. For over two hundred years the Plantin press had a monopoly, granted by Rome, for the printing of liturgical formularies, yet in 1562, suspected of heresy, Plantin fled to France for two years. At an auction of his press, friends bought up his equipment on his behalf
plantureux (m.), plantureuse (f.)(French) abundant, buxom (woman)
Planum temporalea region of the cerebral cortex that extends posteriorly from the primary auditory cortex. It is involved in processing of auditory representations of language
Planxty(derived from planctus) an Irish or Welsh melody for the harp, sometimes of a mournful character
Plaque(French f.) a decorative tablet or plate, designed to be hung as an ornament on the wall or to be inserted into a piece of furniture, often bearing a commemorative inscription
plaqué(French, literally 'laid down') an instruction to play all the notes of a chord together, not arpeggiated or spread
Plaque commémorative(French f.) memorial stone
Plaque de protection(French f.) plectrum guard, pick guard, parapenne (Italian m.), Schlagbrett (German n.)
plaquer(French) to strike at once (when speaking of chords, i.e. not arpeggiated)
Plaque tournantessee 'disc valve'
Plaquette(French f.) in art, an ornamental tablet cast in low relief in bronze or in lead
Plastefolie(German f.) plastic film
Plastic artsthose visual arts that involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. Examples are clay, paint and plaster. The plastic arts may refer to: architecture, ceramics, glass art, land art, metalworking, mosaic, paper art, the use of plastics within the arts or as an artform itself, sculpture, textile art, and woodworking
Plastikfolie(German f.) plastic film
Plastron(French) a metal breastplate or the fur front of the sideless surcoat worn by medieval ladies
(French) the starched front of a dress-shirt, a separate starched front worn to simulate a dress-shirt, a piece of material inserted to fill a large neck-open in a woman's dress, a 'bib'-front
Plat(French m.) flat (of the hand)
plat (m.), plate (f.)(French) flat
Plat à emporter(French m.) take-away
Platagh(ancient Greece) an invention of Archytas, a child's rattle
Platagwgion(ancient Greece) an invention of Archytas, a child's rattle
Platane(French m.) plane(-tree)
Plat du jour(French m.) speciality of the day (a dish recommended by the proprietor of a restaurant on a certain day)
Platein printing, a flat substrate, usually of metal, that holds an image that can be printed. Plates can vary in thickness so they can be rigid as used in most intaglio processes, or thin and flexible as in lithography. Intaglio plates are highly polished before use while plates for lithography must have a grain ground into them to mimic the quality of a litho-stone
a piece of tableware from which food is served or eaten, plato (Spanish m.)
a piece of silverware, vajilla de plata (Spanish f.)
a thin piece of metal, chapa (Spanish f.)
an illustration or picture in a book, lámina (Spanish f.)
to cover with metal, chapear (Spanish)
Platea(Spanish f.) stalls (seat in a theatre, cinema, etc.), pit of a theatre
Plateau(French m.) plate, cup, cuscinetto (Italian m.), Deckel (German m.)
(French m.) tray, turntable (gramophone), pan (balance)
Plateau (s.), Plateaux (pl.)(French m.) plate of the cymbals
Plateau de fromages(French m.) cheeseboard
Plateau-repas(French m.) tray meal
Plate-bande(French f.) flower-bed
Plate bellsor bell plates, campane in lastra di metallo (Italian), Plattenglocken (German), cloches-plaques (French), campanas del platillo (Spanish)
designed to produce deep bell-like sounds, plate bells are individual sheets or rods of solid metal each designed to sound a particular note when struck with a mallet
Plated-through (hole)or PTH, a plated hole in a printed circuit board (PCB) used as an interconnection between the top and bottom sides or the inner layers of a PCB. PTH is intended to mount component leads in through hole technology
Plate-forme(French f.) platform
Plate markan embossment surrounding a printed image, caused by the difference in height between the press bed and the printing plate under a single sheet of paper. It can be found on intaglio prints that were hand pulled from small plates. Commercial presses that utilised impression cylinders with a number of images on them did not create plate marks. As images are cut apart from large printed sheets no plate markings will be evident. Sometimes embossing was placed around an image after it was printed to create the illusion of an intaglio print (false intaglio)
Platen pressa simple press where a printing plate or letterpress form is placed on the press bed and locked in position. Then grippers move single sheets of paper from the feeding stack to the heavy metal platen. Rollers apply ink to the plate on the press bed and then the bed and the platen are pressed together like a clamshell transferring the image onto the paper. When the platen and the bed spread apart, grippers remove the paper and place it in a tray
Plate numbera number that may be mistaken for a catalog number, usually found at the bottom of the first page of music of a publication, or at the beginning of each signature, which identifies the original plate(s)
Platerspiel(German n.) or Blaterpfeife, bladder pipe
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Platesthe back and belly of a string instrument soundbox
Plate tonethe tonal qualities of an intaglio image that are printed not from its incised lines, but from unwiped ink lying on the plate's surface. Just prior to printing, the entire surface of an intaglio plate is covered with ink. If it is to be hand wiped as in fine art printing, rags or cheesecloth are employed to remove the excess ink from this surface. But this method of hand wiping cannot remove all the ink leaving behind a very thin film. Sometimes ink is purposefully pulled out of the incised lines while hand wiping to create unique tonal effects (retroussage). This provides each impression with its own individual look. In most commercial printing methods this excess ink us removed with the aid of a mechanical blade that wipes the surface completely clean. This speeds up the printing process and creates uniform prints
Plate tracerywindow tracery in which the designs have been carved from a flat plate of stone rather than constructed from bars, characteristic of early Gothic
Platillo (s.), Platillos (pl.)(Spanish m.) cymbal(s), cymbale (French)
Platillo chino (s.), Platillos chinos (pl.)(Spanish m.) Chinese cymbal(s)
Platine(French m.) platinum
Platine(French f.) turntable (gramophone)
Platinotypealso called 'platinum print', a process patented in England by William Willis in 1873, based on the iron salt chemistry of cyanotypes. As the iron salts are developed out of the emulsion, they are replaced by platinum added to the wash solution. This yields a matte finish with very subtle gradations of silver. A sepia toned version was later patented in 1878. These are some of the most durable of all photographs for they are not prone to fading. Almost half of the prints made by the great photographers at the turn of the century utilised this process
Platinplatte(German f.) a platinum record (a special award given for outstanding sales of a record or CD)
Plato(Spanish m.) plate (circular in shape)
Plato and neo-Platonismthe Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy, Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. A student of Socrates, he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399, and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form, Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic, the Symposium, Phaedrus, Phaedo, Philebus, Timaeus, Theatetus and the Laws
Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character, emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In contrast with Aristotle, he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis, not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Thus empirical science does not have a central role in Plato's thought, though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony, as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness, have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Rather unsystematic, with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved, his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Plotinus, the greatest of his ancient disciples, systematized and added to what Plato had done, turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction, while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists
Platonicin common usage, intellectual rather than physical (attraction, love-affair, etc.)
of or pertaining to the philosophy or work of the Athenian philosopher Plato (428-348 BC)
Platonic formsideas, images and patterns, that exist in an intangible world of the abstract-but-perfect, but appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the imperfect physical world. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty - such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them - the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the "real" world of the eternal forms
platonique(French) platonic
Platonismthe philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In a narrower sense the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism
Platos(Spanish m. pl.) cymbals
Plâtre(French m.) plaster, plaster cast (medicine)
plâtrer(French) to plaster
Plättchen(German n.) Zäpfchen (German n.), talon (French m.), bouton (French m.), nocetta (Italian f.), on a violin, etc., the small semicircular extension (called the button) of the back that provides extra gluing surface for the crucial neck joint, and is neglected when measuring the length of the back. Occasionally a half-circle of ebony surrounds the button, either to restore material lost in resetting the neck of an old instrument, or to imitate that effect
Plattenglocken(German f. pl.) plate bell(s)
Plattenspieler(German m.) record player
Platypussee 'Kyma'
Platz(German m.) place
Platzanweiser (m.), Platzanweiserin (f.)(German) usher (m.), usherette (f.)
Plätze tauschen (mit), Die(German) to change places (with), to swap places (with)
plaudernd(German) chattering, babbling
Playa specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray
to perform upon a musical instrument, sonare (Italian), spielen (German), jouer (French)
Playback(Italian m., English, German n., French m.) the process of playing previously recorded materal, usually shortly after the material has been recorded, in order to determine its technical and/or musical qualities
Playera performer of a musical instrument, sonatore (Italian), Spieler (German), exécutant (French)
Playeraa Gypsy seguidilla
Player piano(English, Playerpiano (German n.)) a piano that plays music without the intervention of a live performer - the instrument is under the control of a rotating paper roll through which pressurized air passes to operate the mechanism
Playford Dancesin 1651 a music publisher called John Playford published The English Dancing Master. This was a book of brief instructions for a hundred odd such dances. The title was a joke because all the best dancing masters were French. This book proved to be a success and a second edition was issued the next year, and a third three years later; the later editions dropped the joke and were simply titled The Dancing Master. Successive editions were published until 1728, with John Playford's son, Henry taking over in 1684, and then John Young in 1709. Later editions ran to three volumes and over the years dances were added and dropped so that over a thousand distinct dances were published. Various other publishers got in on the act and books of country dances were published at frequent intervals through to about 1850. Throughout this time country dances were regarded as light relief from 'real dancing' and we get various letters and journals saying things like "and afterwards we set to and danced country dances till four in the morning" where it was clearly not worth going into details
Play freein jazz, improvise, usually without chords changes or a pre-set form
Playfullyin a playful manner, scherzando (Italian), scherzoso (Italian), spasshaft (German), en badinant (French)
Playing insidein jazz, improvisation that adheres strictly to the traditional approach that followed standard patterns of chordal progressions, as opposed to 'playing outside'
Playing rangethe playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i.e. upper and lower boundaries of the notes it can play. Its designated range is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range
Playing scoresynonymous with 'performance score'
Playing techniquemodo di suonare (Italian f.), Spielart (German f.), façon de jouer (French f.)
the systematic procedure by which the complex task of playing a musical instrument is accomplished
Playlista custom index of musical pieces that play in a certain order, for example on an MP3 player
Play of Robin and Marion written in Italy in about 1282 by the trouvère Adam de la Halle (Adam le Bossu) (c.1240-c.1285) this theatrical work with dialogue and songs set to what were probably popular songs is considered by some to be the forerunner of modern opera
Pleasantlyin a manner pleasing to the mind, feelings, or senses, piacevole (Italian), vergnügt (German), agréablement (French)
Pleasure, atsee 'at pleasure'
Pleasure gardensalthough generally associated with London, the great gardens at Vauxhall, Cremorne, Marylebone amd Ranelagh, pleasure gardens sprang up in many of England's larger regional spa towns including Bath. They were a form of entertainment that provided the middle and upper middle classes with a place to meet, listen to music and walk in pleasant surroundings while the working classes could attend too in unsegregated pleasure. Smaller inns and taverns also took to calling themselves pleasure gardens or wells and prospered into the nineteenth century
Plebs(Latin) the common people, the working-class
Plec.a slang term among guitar players for the plectrum or 'flatpick'
Plectra(Latin) plural of plectrum
Plectre(French m.) plectrum, plettro (Italian m.), Plektrum (German n.), Spielblättchen (German n.), plectro (Spanish m.)
Plectro(Spanish m.) plectrum, plectre (French m.), plettro (Italian m.), Plektrum (German n.), Spielblättchen (German n.)
Plectrum (s.), Plectra (pl.)(English, Dutch, Latin s.) or 'pick', plectre (French m.), plettro (Italian m.), Plektrum (German n.), Spielblättchen (German n.), plectro (Spanish m.)
a small piece of wood, bone, leather, quill, or whatever, used to pluck a string
Pledgea solemn or formal commitment to do or give or refrain from something
to pay (an amount of money) as a contribution to a charity or service (especially at regular intervals), to propose a toast to, to give as a guarantee, to bind or secure by a promise
Pledgetusually made of cotton or wool, a small flat absorbent pad used to medicate, drain, or protect a wound or sore
Pléiade, Lasee La Pléiade
plein (m.), pleine (f.)(French) full, complete
Plein air(French m.) an 'open air' atmosphere that is characteristic of certain landscape paintings
plein de (m.), pleine de (f.)(French) full of
plein de coins et de recoins(French) rambling
pleinement(French) fully
plein jeu(French m., literally 'full stops') also called 'full up', another word for principal chorus with mixture, i.e. organo pleno or for the engagement of all the registers on a harpsichord
Plein jeu harmonique(French) a mixture stop, in an organ
Plektron (s.), Plektra (pl.)(German n.) or Spielblättchen (German n.), plectrum, pick, plettro (Italian m.), plectre (French m.), plectro (Spanish m.)
Plektrum (s.), Plektra (pl.)(German n.) or Spielblättchen (German n.), plectrum, pick, plettro (Italian m.), plectre (French m.), plectro (Spanish m.)
Plenaan Afro-Puerto Rican folk song and dance style played on the 10-stringed cuatro, güiro and panderetas (tambourines), with satyrical lyrics or those making social or political statements. Plena blends elements from Puerto Ricans' wide cultural backgrounds, including music that the Taíno tribes may have used during their ceremonies. This type of music first appeared in Ponce about 100 years ago
Plenary massa setting that includes both the Ordinary and the Proper of the Mass, as for example, the ten-movement plenary mass, an anonymous Missa Beati Anthonii, which was discovered in a group of fifteenth-century codices in Trent in Northern Italy and which some scholars believe may be the second of two Saint Anthony Masses (the first being for Saint Anthony of Padua) bequeathed in his will to the Cambrai Cathedral by Guillaume Dufay (?1397-1474), neither of which was thought to have survived
Pleng luk thung(Thai, literally 'song of a child of the fields') the full name for luk thung
pleno(Italian) full
Pleno iure(Latin) with full authority
pleno organo(Latin) full organ
Plenum(Latin) a space completely filled with matter, the opposite of vacuum
(Latin) the full meeting of a legislative assembly
in music, another word for principal chorus with mixture, i.e. organo pleno
Pleonasma habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy
Plethora(Latin from Greek) superabundance, excess
Pléthore(French f. from Latin) over-abundance, plethora, excess
Pletiasmall support drum from Ghana played with sticks
Plettro(Italian m.) plectrum, pick, Plektrum (German n.), Spielblättchen (German n.), plectre (French m.), plectro (Spanish m.)
Pleuelstange(German f.) connecting rod
pleurant(French) weeping
pleurer(French) to cry, to weep, to water (the eyes), to mourn
Pleurésie(French f.) pleurisy
pleurnicher(French) to snivel (familiar)
pleuvoir (dans)(French) to rain (in), to rain down (in), to shower down (in)
Plexus (s. & pl.)(Latin) a network, a tangled mess, a complicated interweaving
Pli(French m.) fold, pleat (skirt), crease (trousers), cover, habit
Pliant(French m.) folding stool, camping stool
(English) easily bent or flexed, pliable
pliant (m.), pliante (f.)(French) folding, telescopic
Plica(Latin, literally 'fold') the name used for liquescent neumes found in Parisian polyphony of the early thirteenth century and also used in melismatic music
Plica(Spanish f.) stem (of a note), queue (French), asta (Italian), Notenhals (Ger.), gamba (It.)
Plié(French, literally 'bent' or 'bending') dobrado (Portuguese), in dance, a bending of the knee or knees. This is an exercise to render the joints and muscles soft and pliable and the tendons flexible and elastic, and to develop a sense of balance. There are two principal pliés: grand plié or full bending of the knees (the knees should be bent until the thighs are horizontal) and demi-plié or half-bending of the knees. Pliés are done at the barre and in the centre in all five positions of the feet. The third position is usually omitted. When a grand plié is executed in either the first, third or fourth position croisé (feet in the fifth position but separated by the space of one foot) or the fifth position, the heels always rise off the ground and are lowered again as the knees straighten. The bending movement should be gradual and free from jerks, and the knees should be at least half-bent before the heels are allowed to rise. The body should rise at the same speed at which it descended, pressing the heels into the floor. In the grand plié in the second position or the fourth position ouverte (feet in the first position but separated by the space of one foot) the heels do not rise off the ground. All demi-pliés are done without lifting the heels from the ground. In all pliés the legs must be well turned out from the hips, the knees open and well over the toes, and the weight of the body evenly distributed on both feet, with the whole foot grasping the floor
  • Plié from which this information has been taken
plier(French) to fold, to bend (for example, the leg, or the body), to submit (to a person)
Plin(France) Breton dance tune
Plinthe(French f.) skirting board, baseboard (U.S. term)
Plique(French) plica
Pliqué à jour(French) in art, a kind of cloisonné-work in which the ground is removed, after the application of transparent enamels is complete, so that light may shine through the piece to create a stained glass effect
plissé(French) (a fabric) gathered in small pleats, or so woven as to have a shirred effect over parts of the surface
plisser(French) to crease, to screw up (the eyes), to pleat (skirt)
Plomb(French m.) lead, fuse
Plombage(French m.) filling (dentist)
plomber(French) to fill (dentist)
Plombier(French m.) plumber
Plombiere(French f.) plumbing
Plombs(French m. pl.) lead-shot
plongeant (m.), plongeante (f.)(French) (view) from above, plunging (décolleté)
plongé dans(French) immersed in
Plongée(French f.) diving
Plongeoir(French m.) diving-board
Plongeon(French m.) dive
plonger(French) to dive, to plunge
Plongeur (m.), Plongeuse (f.)(French) diver, a person who washes dishes
Plopa rapidly descending glissando at the start of a note, normally sounded just prior to the beat
Plosivein linguistics, another term for a non-nasal stop, a class of speech sound characterized by a constriction and sudden release of airflow. Examples are /b/ and /t/
Plotthe structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of fiction
plötzlich(German) suddenly
plötzlich abreißen(German) suddenly interrupted
plötzlich verbreitern(German) suddenly broaden
Plouf(French m.) splash
Plovera shore bird with a short tail, long pointed wings, and brown or grey feathers mixed with white
ployer(French) to bend
Pluckby picking or pulling them with fingers or a pick, cause the strings on a stringed instrument to vibrate, an effect found on members of the harpsichord family where, attached to each jack, a leather or quill plectrum plucks the strings
Plucking hand fingeringin music written for the guitar, plucking hand fingerings are sometimes supplied
symbolfinger used
ppulgar (Spanish, thumb)
iindex finger
mmiddle finger
aannular (or ring) finger
x, e, or sfor flamenco 'rasgueados', all three represent the smallest finger
Pluck buffetanthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of "pluck buffet." In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is "bravest" or "toughest." Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner
Pluckedsound (the string of a musical instrument) with a finger or plectrum, pizzicato (Italian), gepflückt (German), pincé (French)
we list below the main plucking techniques for all string instruments:
pizzicatoplucking the string with the tip of the finger or thumb. After a passage of pizzicato a composer should write arco beneath the music to tell the players to return to bowing
arraché, anreissena particularly forceful pizzicato
pizzicato seccoa damped pizzicato, where immediately after plucking the note the finger returns to the string to damp the vibration
snap (or 'Bartok') pizzicatopulling the string upwards and allowing it to 'snap' sharply against the fingerboard
slurred pizzicatoafter a pizzicato note is plucked, and while the sound is still ringing, further notes can be played by adding or removing fingers of the left hand
plucking with the fingernailthis effect can be painful for the player especially with thicker strings on the cello and bass
pizzicato tremolorapid motion of the finger against the string after it has been plucked
'strumming' or 'chords'when chords appear in a pizzicato passage they are usually strummed. Chords will be strummed from the lowest note upwards unless indicated otherwise (perhaps by a downward arrow beside the chord). Violin and viola players use the index finger, whereas cello and bass players will use the thumb. When cellos and basses strum downwards they will pull the index finger across the strings
pizzicato chords - not strummedtwo or more notes plucked together. If the composer wishes the notes to be plucked simultaneously, a square bracket beside the chord and the words non arpegg. pizz. should be used
quasi guitar(literally 'like a guitar') violins and violas can be held sideways against the body and strummed. To indicate the direction of strums, either arrows can be used or the symbols for up and down bows
left hand pizzicatothe strings are plucked with left rather than bowing (right) hand. This effect can be combined with arco so that players produce both plucked and bowed notes simultaneously
pizzicato glissandoafter a note is plucked the left hand finger slides up or down the string. The destination note of the glissando can be left unspecified. The result is quiet when compared to the plucking sound at the start of the note
Plucking pointthe point at which a string, such as that on a harpsichord, is plucked relative to the nut. The smaller the distance to the plucking point the more nasal the tone
Pluck pointin a mechanical action on the organ, this is the point at which the tracker is pulling the valve open. The organist can actually feel this through the key. It is similar to the 'pluck point' in a harpsichord, which the musician can also feel when pressing a key, just as the plectrum is releasing the string at the point of sounding
Plum(German Pflaume, French Prune, Dutch Pruim, European Species: Prunus domestica: Average Weight: 35 to 50 pounds per cubic foot) a very hard fine grained wood, plum was used for small carved and turned pieces such as buttons and barrel cocks
Plummetin medieval manuscripts, method of ruling the guide lines on a page using red lead
Plunderphonicsa term originally coined by John Oswald in 1985 for an essay entitled Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative. It has since been applied to any music made by taking one or more existing audio recordings and altering them in some way to make a new composition. There is no attempt to disguise the fact that the sounds making up the composition have been "borrowed" in this way, and sometimes the sounds may be taken from very familiar sources. Plunderphonics can be considered a form of sound collage
Plungera movable device that changes the length of the tube in which vibrations are set up, so changing the pitch, as on a slide whistle
Plunger (mute)or 'Wah-Wah mute', a round mute used with brass instruments that is held in front of the bell of the instrument to dampen the sound, the plunger can be moved back and forth, as required, in front of the bell to provide a wide range of sounds
Plupart(French f.) most (preceded by la)
la plupart (d'entre eux) pensent que (French: most (of them) think that, the majority (of them) think that)
la plupart des gens (French: most people, the majority of people)
la plupart des cas (French: most cases, the majority of cases)
la plupart de mon temps (French: most of my time)
la plupart de son temps (French: most of one's time)
la plupart du temps (French: most of the time)
Pluperfectanother term for augmented (applied to intervals)
Pluralismthe use, sometime simultaneously, of many different styles within a single musical work
Pluriarc(Equatorial Africa) an instrument similar to an arched harp but having a different neck for each of its three to seven strings, for example the nsambi of Central Africa
Plurivocalityor Mehrstimmigkeit, multi-part singing
plus(French) more
plus animé(French) faster, with more animation
plus bas(French) further dowm, lower down
plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose(French) the more things change (superficially), the more they remain (fundamentally) the same
plus clair de, le(French) most of
plus clair de notre temps, le(French) most of our time
plus court(French) shorter, lighter
plus diminuéewhen dances and chansons were printed (for example, in the lute book of Adrian Le Roy) they were often presented in two versions, the first plain and unadorned, and the second plus diminuée, that is with florid running passages
plus doucement(French) softer, more softly, leiser (German), più piano (Italian)
Plus fait douceur que violence.(French) Kindness succeeds where force will fail. (Fables (1668 à 1694), Livre sixième, II, Phébus et Borée, Jean de La Fontaine)
the motto to be found on Arnold Dolmetsch's personally signed keyboard instruments
plus fort(French) louder
Plus fourscropped knickerbocker-style trousers made of tweed that are designed to fall four inches below the knee band, from which they get their name
plus grand peintre qui ait jamais vécu, le(French) the greatest painter who ever lived
plus lent(French) slower
plus lentement(French) more slowly
Plus on est de fous, plus on rit.(French) The more the merrier.
plus ou moins(French) more or less, about
plus que jamais(French) more than ever
plus rapid(French) quicker
plus royaliste que le roi(French, literally 'more royalist than the king) more enthusiastic about some cause or project than the person most immediately concerned
plus tard(French) later
plus tôt(French) earlier
plus tôt possible, le(French) as soon as possible
plus vite(French) faster, quicker, swifter
Plygain(Welsh, literally 'cockcrow') the traditional early-morning carol service held in Welsh churches on Christmas Day. This service took the place of the Cockcrow Mass, or Dawn Mass early on Christmas Morning. Many of the carols and songs are very old indeed, and the music is pure polyphonic harmony, traditionally sung by men and without accompaniment although that aspect of the tradition is fading
Plz.abbreviation of plaza (Spanish f.: square, plaza)
PMabbreviation of 'palm mute'
P.M.abbreviation of 'palm mute', Post mortem (Latin: after death - particularly a dissection carried out to establish the cause of death)
p.m.abbreviation of post meridiem
Pmoabbreviation of pianissimo (Italian: very quietly)
Pn.abbreviation of 'pianoforte'
PNBabbreviation of produit national brut (French: GNP - gross national product)
Pneuma(Greek, literally 'breath') the spirit, the soul
in music, florid passages sung on a single vowel, neuma
Pneumaticpertaining to air, or wind
Pneumatic actiona mechanism designed to lighten the touch in larger organs, levier pneumatique, and which has generally replaced the older tracker system
Pneumatic readerinvented by Anselme Gavioli in 1892, the pneumatic reader replaced the wooden cylinder in a mechanical barrel organ with a system of cardboard books of virtually limitless length. Holes punched in the books are detected by tabs on a keyframe. The circumference of the wooden cylinder no longer dictated the length of the pieces of music
abbreviation of paseo (Spanish m.: avenue)
POabbreviation of 'Philharmonic Orchestra'
PoChinese cymbals
po'(Italian) contraction of poco
Pöbel(German m.) a mob, a rabble
pöbelhaft(German) loutish
pocchissimo(Italian) a very little, the least possible, the bare minimum
Poceta(Italian) a kit, a small voilin used by dancing-masters
poch.abbreviated form of pochetto or pochissimo
Poche(French) a kit, a small voilin used by dancing-masters
pochen(German) to knock, to pound (heart)
pochen auf(German) to insist on (figurative), to insist upon (figurative)
Pochetta(Italian f.) a small violin
Pochette(Italian f., French f., literally a 'little pocket') Taschengeige (German), small violin-like instrument designed to be carried in the pocket of a large coat, played with a short bow, used by a dancing master to playing tunes to which his pupil might learn the steps. These slender instruments are also called 'kits'
(French f.) sleeve (of an record)
(French f.) packet, envelope
(French f.) a woman's handbag of cloth or leather
pochettino(Italian) very little indeed
pochetto(Italian) very little
pochieren(German) to poach
pochino(Italian) a little
pochiss.(Italian) abbreviation of pochissimo
[entry supplied by Jack Claff]
pochissimo(Italian) a very little, the least possible, the bare minimum
pochissimo rall.(Italian) a slight rall.
pochissimo ritard.(Italian) a slight ritard.
Pochoiralso known as 'French stencil', a method of adding colour by hand though the use of cut stencils of paper or thin sheet metal as guides. Known since the Middle Ages, this process was used to achieve subtle colouration on collotypes. It became most popular when creating flat patterns on Art Deco cards of the 1920s. This stenciling method eventually evolved into the screenprinting process
Pocken(German pl.) smallpox
Pocketas 'in the pocket', an expression used in jazz to mean perfectly in time, especially of bass playing that is 'in the centre' of the beat, i.e. neither slightly leading, or ahead of, nor slightly behind, or dragging the beat
Pocket bassoonracket
Pocketbok(Swedish) paperback
Pocket mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Pocket scorealso called a study or miniature score, a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size
poco(Italian) a little, ein wenig, un peu, rather
poco allegro(Italian) somewhat quick, rather quick
poco animato(Italian) a little more animated
poco antes(Spanish) a short time before
poco à poco(Italian) little by little, gradually
poco à poco animando(Italian) becoming steadily more lively
poco à poco con sordinoan orchestral instruction where members of the string section put their mutes on one-by-one while the others continue playing. This creates the unique sound of the section becoming slowly muted rather than the immediate change from senza sordino (unmuted) to con sordino (muted), a technique found in Ravel's Daphnis et Chloé
poco à poco crescendo(Italian) louder and louder by degrees
poco à poco diminuendo(Italian) softer and softer by degrees
poco à poco due ed allora tutte le corde(Italian) gradually two and then all strings
poco à poco più di fuoco(Italian) with gradually increasing fire and animation
poco curante (s.), poco curanti (pl.)(Italian) careless, indifferent, nonchalant, one who shows little interest or concern
poco después(Spanish) soon after
poco dulce(Spanish) mezzopiano, mp
poco forte(Italian) somewhat loud
poco, fra(Italian) see fra poco
poco largo(Italian) rather slow
poco lento(Italian) rather slow
poco meno(Italian) a little less, somewhat less
(Italian) when standing alone poco meno is understood to mean poco meno mosso (Italian: a little less quickly)
poco meno allegro(Italian) somewhat less quick
poco meno mosso(Italian) a little less fast, a little slower
poco mosso(Italian) rapid
poco piano(Italian) somewhat soft, rather soft
poco più(Italian) a little more, somewhat more
(Italian) when standing alone poco più is understood to mean poco più mosso (Italian: a little more quickly)
poco più largo(Italian) a little more slowly
poco più lento(Italian) somewhat slower
poco più lento della prima volta(Italian) somewhat slower than the first time
poco più mosso(Italian) a little faster, somewhat faster
poco più piano(Italian) a little softer, somewhat softer
poco presto(Italian) rather quick
poco presto accelerando(Italian) gradually accelerate the time
poco profundo(Spanish) shallow, superficial
poco rit.abbreviation of poco ritardando (Italian: slow slightly, slow down a little bit)
[entry prompted by Eric Greene]
poco ritardando(Italian) slow slightly, slow down a little bit
[entry prompted by Eric Greene]
poco, unsee un poco
Podatussee 'neumatic notation'
Podcastingbroadcasting of prerecorded material over the Internet which is then recorded by individuals to an iPod or a similar device
Poço(Portuguese) (orchestral) pit
Poder adquisitivo(Spanish m.) purchasing power
Podere(Italian m.) a farm, a country estate (in Italy)
poderoso(Italian) powerful
Podest(German n.) rostrum
Podestà(Italian) the chief magistrate of an Italian town
Podio(Italian m.) rostrum, dias
Podismo(Italian m.) walking
Podista(Italian m./f.) a walker
Podium(English, German n., French m.) rostrum, a raised platform for the conductor
Podsafea term created in the podcasting community to refer to any work which, through its licensing, specifically allows the use of the work in podcasting, regardless of restrictions the same work might have in other realms. For example, a song may be legal to use in podcasts, but may need to be purchased or have royalties paid for over-the-air radio use, television use, and possibly even personal use
  • Podsafe from which this extract has been taken
Poemfrom the latter half of the nineteenth century, the title given to a strongly programmatic piece for orchestra, usually in one continuous movement
see 'symphonic poem', 'tone-poem'
Poema(Italian m.) poem
Poema sinfonica(Italian m.) symphonic poem, tone poem
Poema sinfónico(Spanish m.) symphonic poem, tone poem
Poème(French m.) poem
Poème Electroniquethe Philips Pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958 was designed in large part by Iannis Xenakis, at the time one of Le Corbusier's architectural assistants. The program in the pavilion during the World's Fair consisted of Edgard Varèse' Poème Electronique played through 400 loudspeakers, projected images and colored lights created by Le Corbusier, and Iannis Xenakis' Concrète PH played as an interlude between shows
Poëme symphonique(French m.) symphonic poem, tone poem
Poesia(Italian f.) poetry, poem
Poesía(Spanish f.) poem, poetry
Poesía griega y latina antiguas(Spanish f.) classical poetry (that of the ancient Greeks and Romans)
Poesía moderna(Spanish f.) modern poetry
Poésie(French f.) poem, poetry
Poeta(Italian m.) poet
Poeta nascitur non fit(Latin) a poet is born, not made
Poète(French m.) poet
Poète maudit(French m.) a poet insufficiently appreciated by his contemporaries
Poetessa(Italian f.) poetess
Poetical overturea descriptive species of overture
Poetic dictiondistinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms, neologisms, rhyme, and unusual figures of speech
Poetic justicethe phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer (c.1643-1713)) in the late 1600s, a literary device in which virtue is ultimately rewarded or vice punished
Poetic licensethe freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called "artistic license"
poetico(Italian) poetic, poetical
Poeti contadinisee ottava rima
Poeticslike rhetoric, poetics is an 'art' (techne, ars), a part of man's activity by means of which he alters nature or even adds something to it
Poetic speakerthe narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem
poétique(French) poetic
poetisch(German) poetic
Poetrya variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme, alliteration, or combinations of these elements. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose
poetry (poesis, 'making', since Herodotus) and poetics (poietike, viz., techne, since Plato), the words as well as the concepts were created by the Greeks in their endeavor to analyze man and the cosmos rationally. The subsequent evolution of these ideas is determined by their Greek origin, as is evident in the terminology. Until the mid eighteenth century, the Greek words, or their equivalents, were used in Latin and in the vernaculars; 'poetry' being to all purposes identical with verse. Literary prose-oratory, history, philosophy-belonged to the parallel but separate 'art' of rhetoric. Prose fiction (novels and short stories) was ignored or explicitly rejected by the theorists. Until the beginnings of romanticism, the modern concept of art did not exist, though in classical antiquity attempts were made to group poetry together with fine arts. Only in the eighteenth century was the modern system of arts, as well as the concept of 'aesthetics', created
"Poetry, therefore, we call musical thought. The Poet is he who thinks in that manner. At bottom, it turns still on the power of intellect; it is a man's sincerity and depth of vision that makes him a Poet. See deep enough, and you see musically; the heart of Nature being everywhere music, if you can only reach it...." Thomas Carlyle (1759-1881) On Heroes and Hero-Worship (1840)
poggiare(Italian) to lean, to place
poggiare su(Italian) to to be based on
Poggiatesta(Italian m.) head-rest
poggiato(Italian) dwelt upon, leaned upon, appoggiato, gestützt. appuyé
Poggio(Italian m.) hillock
Pogooriginated around 1976 as the anti-disco-dance of the alternative punk movement
Pogrom(Russian, literally 'destruction') an organised massacre aimed at the elimination of a class or type of people (especially the massacre of Jews)
Poi(Maori) small ball on the end of a string that is twirled in the hands and slapped to provide a rhythmic accompaniment
poi(Italian) then, after, afterwards, later, later on, finally
poi à poi(Italian) by degrees
poi à poi tutti le corde(Italian) all the strings, one after another
poiché(Italian) since
Poids(French m.) weight
Poids du bras(French m.) weight of the arm
Poids du corps(French m.) weight of the body
Poignet(French m.) wrist
Poïkilorgana reed organ invented in the early 1830s by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, similar to the harmonium of François Debain developed in the early 1840s
Poïkilorgue(French m.) a reed organ invented in the early 1830s by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, similar to the harmonium of François Debain developed in the early 1840s
poi la coda(Italian) then (play) the coda
Poilu(French m., literally 'hairy') a French private solidier, a reference to his unkempt and unshaven appearance
Point(French m.) dot, augmentation dot, as in le point de prolongation
(English) an isolated note
(English) an obsolete term meaning the subject of a fugue or of any kind of imitation, such a subject consisting of any number of notes
(also called the tip) punta d'arco (Italian), Spitze (German), pointe (French), on the bow of a stringed instrument, the opposite end to the heel
Point d'Alençon(French m.) a kind of lace made at Alençon
Point d'appui(French m.) a fulcrum, the point of leverage
Point d'arrêt
(French m.) a musical symbol placed over a rest to be extended beyond its normal duration
Point d'attaque(French m.) on a piano (or clavichord), where the hammer (or tangent) strikes the string
(French m.) on a harpsichord, spinet, guitar, mandolin, etc., where the plectrum strikes the string
Point de diminution(French f. pl.) a mark that indicates that a note should be held for less than its unmarked length (for example, staccato, martellato, portamento) the remaining time being silent
Point de nouvelles, bonnes nouvelles.(French) No news is good news.
Point de prolongation(French m.) augmentation dot, often abbreviated to 'dot'
Point de repère(French m.) a reference point, a rallying point, a point from which to take one's bearings
Point de repos(French m.) a pause
Point de Venise(French m.) a kind of lace made in Venice
Point de vue de la caméra(French m.) camera view point
Point d'exclamation(French m.) exclamation mark
Point d'honneur(French m.) a point of honour, a code of honour
Point d'interrogation(French m.) question mark
Point d'orgue(French m.) organ point, pedal point, harmonic pedal
(French m.) a term applied to the cadenza in a concerto
Point d'orgue
(French m.) a musical symbol placed over a note to be extended beyond its normal duration
pointé (m.), pointée (f.)(French) dotted, detached, pointed, pricked
see inégal
Pointe(French f.) toe, point, the extreme point of the toe (in ballet)
"The pricking and sharp end of something. ... Is said about wine and means a certain piquant and agreeable flavour: "This wine lacks pointe." ... "A sauce that has no pointe" is one that is not spicy enough." - Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise (1694)
Pointe(German f.) point (of a joke)
Pointe (d'archet)(French f.) tip of the bow
Pointe d'accroche(French f.) hitch-pin
Pointe d'archet(French f.) a tremolo with the point or tip of the bow
Pointe d'archet, à la(French f.) see à la pointe d'archet
Pointe de chevalet(French f.) bridge-pin
Pointed psalma psalm with the words printed with special symbols indicating the manner of chanting, as for example, Anglican chant
pointée(French) dotted
Pointe métallique (s.), Pointes métalliques(French f.) metal pins (for example, as on a barrel organ or music box, etc.)
pointer(French) to dot
"By means of a dot, to make a series of naturally equal notes alternately long and short, for example a succession of quavers (eighth notes). In order to pointer a note, you add a dot after the first, an extra flag to the second, a dot to the third, a flag to the fourth, and so on. In this manner the same value [i.e., a crotchet (quarter note)] that they formerly possessed is maintained for the pairs; but this value is distributed unequally over the two quavers (eighth notes), so that the first or long note has three-quarters of the value, and the second or short note has the remaining quarter. In order to pointer them in performance, you play them unequally in these same proportions, even when they are noted equally. In Italian music all eighth notes are always equal, unless they are shown pointé. But in French music we play quavers (eighth notes) equally only in four-beat bars (measures); in all others we always dot the notes a little, unless croches égales is indicated." - Rousseau (1768)
pointer le bout de son nez(French) to show one's face, peep around (the corner, door)
Pointe shoesthe satin ballet shoes used by dancers when dancing sur les pointes. The ballet shoes of Marie Taglioni, the first major ballerina to dance on her points, were not blocked but were padded with cotton wool. Later (about 1862) the toes of the ballet slippers were stiffened (blocked) with glue and darned to give the dancer additional support. Today the toes of pointe shoes are reinforced with a box constructed of several layers of strong glue in between layers of material
pointes, sur les(French, literally 'on the points') in dance, the raising of the body on the tips of the toes. Also used in the singular, sur la pointe. First introduced in the late 1820s or early 1830s at the time of Taglioni. There are three ways of reaching the points, by piqué, relevé or sauté
Pointe tendue(French) in ballet, when the leg is extended and stretched so that only the toes touch the floor
Pointe tendue a terre(French) stretch point on the ground
Pointe tendue en l'air(French) stretch point in the air, hip high
Pointe tendue demi-en l'air(French) stretch point half way in the air
Pointe workthe technique of dancing sur les pointes
Point final(French m.) the concluding pause, or cadence
(French m.) full stop, period
Pointillismthe emphasis, in a serially organised process, on single notes
Pointillisme(French m.) in art, the method developed by the Impressionist painters of producing an effect of light by juxtaposing dots of pure colour which are blended by the eye
Pointillisme musical(French m.) pointillist music, the musical equivalent of the identically named effect in art
Pointilliste(French m.) a practitioner of pointillisme
Pointingsynonymous with 'fuguing'
although often based more on established even erroneous practices in local churches than on a well-considered or systematic approach based on the natural prose rhythms of of the psalms and canticles, 'pointing' (often with red marks) was a way of indicating to inexperienced church choirs the portion of the verse to be recited and the portion to be inflected, and to ensure a uniform matching of the syllables to the notes. The first 'pointed' psalter appeared as the 'Ely Psalter', authored by Robert James, organist of Ely Cathedral, and published in 1837
Point-neumessee 'neumatic notation'
Point of imitation (s.), Points of imiation (pl.)a passage in a polyphonic work in which two or more parts enter in imitation. It is a method that characterises most of the Renaissance period, beginning especially with the so-called 2nd Franco-Flemish generation of composers (including Josquin des Prez, Jacob Obrecht and Henricus Isaac) who flourished in the late 15th and early 16th centuries
[entry provided by Brandon Hendrix]
Point of viewthe way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as "I" and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he, she, they, and so on). When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient - a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited - a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant
Point of view characterthe central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world
Point virgule(French m.) semicolon
Poirt(Gaelic) jigs
poi segue(Italian) then follows, here follows
poi seguente(Italian) then follows, here follows
Poissard(French) a popular comic theatre which parodied more elevated literary genres through its use of the common street language and colourful portrayal of the fishwives (poissardes) of the Seine and drunken tarts said to have been invented by the French composer Jean-Joseph Vadé (1719-1757)
Poisson(French m., literally 'fish') in dance, a position of the body in which the legs are crossed in the fifth position and held tightly together with the back arched. This pose is taken while jumping into the air or in double work when the danseuse is supported in a poisson position by her partner
Poitrine(French f.) chest, bosom, bust (anatomical), breast (culinary)
Poivrot (m.), Poivrote (f.)(French) drunkard (familiar)
Pojoca zaga(Slovenia) singing saw, musical saw
Pokal(German m.) a goblet, a cup (for example, an award in a competition)
pökeln(German) to salt (in cooking)
Pokey Fourone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Pokihi(Tokelau) a wooden box used as percussion
Pokladarsko kolo(Croatia) the chain sword dance performed by male dancers on the island of Lastovo. Apart from the male variant of the dance with swords, one also finds that the woman of Lastovo perform their own version of the same dance, holding kerchiefs in place of the swords
Pokok(Balinese) the main melody of a piece
Pol(German m.) a pole
Pol.abbreviation of 'Polish'
Polaca(Spanish f.) a Polish dance, polonaise
Polacca(Italian f.) a Polish dance, polonaise
Polacco(Italian m./f.) a Pole (from Poland)
polacco(Italian) Polish
Polarior alternatively parlare, parlary, palare, palarie, palari, parlyaree, from Italian parlare, 'to talk'), a form of cant slang used in the gay subculture in Britain, a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca), Romany, London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and thieves' cant. Later it expanded to contain words from the Yiddish language of the Jewish subculture which settled in the East End of London, the US forces (present in the UK during World War II) and 1960s drug users
  • Polari from which this information has been taken
polarisieren(German) to polarize
Polarizein its general sense, to divide into two opposing groups (hence, to polarize opinion)
polarizzare(Italian) to polarize
Polaroida material in thin sheets polarizing light passing through it, a camera with internal processing that produces a print rapidly after each exposure
Polca(Italian f., Spanish f.) polka
Polcaí(Gaelic) polkas
Polca(Italian f.) polka
Polca paraguayasee 'Danza Paraguaya'
Polca piqué(Spanish f.) polka piquée
Polder(Dutch) a tract of land reclaimed from the sea and protected from inundation by dikes (especially in The Netherlands)
Poleaxto dumbfound (colloquial), to overwhelm (colloquial)
Polemica forceful verbal or written controversy or argument
Polemica(Italian f.) controversy
Polemicalinvolving dispute, controversial
Polemicistone involved in a dispute, a controversialist
polemico(Italian) polemic, polemical
Polemicsthe art or practice of controversial discussion
polemizzare(Italian) to engage in controversy
Polenta(Italian) a porridge made of maize usually associated with the diets of the Italian poorer classes
Pole star(refernece to to star in the Little Bear, near the North Pole in the sky) used colloquially, for a thing serving as a guide
Policlinico(Italian m.) general hospital
Polifonia(Italian f.) polyphony
Polifonía(Spanish f.) polyphony
Polifonia vocale(Italian f.) vocal polyphony
polifônica(Portuguese) polyphonic
Poligamia(Italian f.) polygamy
poligamo(Italian) polygamous
Poligono(Italian m.) polygon
Polimetría(Spanish f.) polymeter
Poliomyelitisan infectious viral disease of the grey matter of the central nervous system with temporary or permanent paralysis
Poliphantor Poliphone
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